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云端上的小学 —— 四季吉小学 School on the cloud —— Si ji ji primary school
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云端上的小学 —— 四季吉小学 School on the cloud —— Si ji ji primary school
image © ayaarch
所有图片及文字来源:阿尼那建造生活

 

建筑师:阿尼那建造生活
地点:四川 凉山
设计团队:许义兴  谢丽菲  郭建刚  唐可莉  乌云德力格尔  王漩 吴宛容 杨旭
项目年份:2015
摄影师: 许义兴 朱坚

Architects: AYAARCH
Location:  Sichuan   Liangshan
Design team:  Xu Yixing, Xie Lifei, Guo Jiangang, Wuyundeligeer, Tang Keli, Wang Xuan, Wu Wanrong, Yang Xu
Project Year:  2015
Photographs:Xu Yixing, Zhu Jian

云端上的小学 —— 四季吉小学

School on the cloud —— Si ji ji primary school

凉山彝族自治州位于青藏高原东缘的横断山脉北段,向四川盆地和云贵高原之间的过渡地带,由于地理、历史等因素,这里是中国最大的集中连片贫困地区之一。本项目实施地四季吉村位于凉山州美姑县依果觉乡,是凉山州海拔最高的村子之一,也是全凉山仅存的几个原生态文化村落之一,其位于大风顶国家自然保护区的边缘,海拔3000多米。该村2013年通电,尚未通自来水,没有手机信号,也不能上网。但正是这种世外桃源般的隔绝,才使得其成为彝族传统民居和耕牧文化最后的保留地。四季吉村小学正是因该村距离乡中心小学太远,为孩子就近读书而兴办的。

Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture is located in the northern part of Hengduan Mountains on Eastern Margin of Tibetan Plateau, the zone of transition between the Sichuan Basin and the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. Because of Geography and History, this place is one of the largest concentric and connecting  poor areas in China. The project’s situation, Sijiji village, is one of the highest villages in Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, and also one of the only remaining original ecology culture villages. It is located on the edge of Dafengding Nature Reserve,  at an altitude of more than 3000 meters above sea level. This village has been electrified from 2013, but still has no tap water, no mobile signal, and no internet. Just being the isolation paradise like, it becomes the last reservation place of Yi people’s culture of traditional residence and cultivation and animal husbandry. Sijiji primary school is built for the long distance from the county central primary school.

总体布局:将两个地块设定为教学区和宿舍-游戏区两个部分,通过架设在两个地块之间小溪上的廊桥联系。

教学区包括小学1-3年级教室、幼儿教育教室、办公室和图书室、卫生间-浴室-厨房-储藏室;宿舍-游戏区包括教师-志愿者宿舍和有着环形跑道及篮球场和排球场的游戏场地。

Master Plan: the 2 land blocks are defined to teaching area and dormitory-game area, and connected by the covered bridge over the little river in-between the two land blocks.

The teaching area include: 1-3 grade classrooms, a preschool education classroom, an office, a library, a bathroom, toilets, a kitchen, and a storage. Dormitory-game area include: the dormitories for teachers and volunteers, a playground with a Circular Runway, a basketball ground, and a volleyball ground.

空间构成:过小河上的小桥即面对学校的大门,入门后办公室和幼儿教育教室之间的公共空间是仪式上的室外门厅,也是学生活动的半室外场地,重点表现民族传统的木构建筑文化。在下雨的天气,孩子们可以有比较大的户外活动场所。穿过门厅正对升旗台和教学区的院落空间,这个院落是学校最重要的公共空间,是仪式集会以及课间活动的场所。

幼儿教育教室和小学教室之间也是一个有屋顶的室外空间,三个小学教室之间也有一个小的室外有顶公共空间。如是形成一个大-中-小的有等级分层次的公共空间系统,促进孩子们的聚集交往活动。每个建筑都有前廊防雨,前廊延伸将各个建筑联系起来。

场地内的散落巨石,通过建筑和院落的经营,皆成为室内空间借景的对象和庭院里的风景。

Space composition: cross the bridge over the river then face to the school gate, behind the gate, the public space between office and preschool education classroom is the outdoor entrance hall, also the students semi-outdoor activity ground, which presenting Yi traditional wood-structure architectural culture. In rainy days, children can have a bigger playground. Through the entrance hall, the courtyard space facing to the flat and teaching area is the most important public space, the ceremony, meeting, and recess activity place.

There is a covered outdoor space between preschool education classroom and primary school classrooms, and the same between the three primary school classrooms. Like this, it becomes, large-middle-small, a hierarchy public space system, boost the gather and communication in-between the children. Front porch goes with every building, and connects them.

Through the management to the buildings and courtyard, the scattered big stones become the borrowed scenery from inner space and the scenery in the courtyard.

建筑结构: 四季吉村可以说是目前保留彝族传统文化最为完整的古村落,为了能够让四季吉村躲过工业化文明的洗劫,为了传承彝族的建造文化,小学的建筑拟采用传统的手工建造方式——石墙、夯土墙、瓦板顶的木结构房屋。我们精简了当地流行的传统木构体系中的构件数量;使横向木构件贯穿以起到大梁的作用,满足受力和计算的要求;加大外挑斗栱以获得深远的挑檐;并增高传统结构中的夹层,使之更适合居住。

Structure: Sijiji is the most complete reservation old village of Yi people’s  traditional culture. For inheriting Yi construction tradition, the school uses the traditional handmade construction way: stone wall, loam wall, roofing slab, and wood structure. We simplify the component quantity of local popular traditional wood structure; let horizontal timber components playing crossbeam throughout, satisfying the requirements of force and calculation; enlarge the outer dougong for getting far-reaching cornice; and increase the height of interlayer of traditional structure, in order to more suitable to live.

室内空间营造:继承当地文化传统,将彝族“入”形屋顶进行转化,形成适应不同功能的建筑空间。教室和办公室利用钢筋混凝土结构,做天窗获得充足的天光,尤其是在冬季获得更多被动式太阳能,降低能耗。所有的居住空间都是传统沿边的窄小隔间,中间留出围绕火塘的公共空间,而火塘是彝族生活起居文化传承的家庭中心,也是外来客人最希望接近的融化心灵的环绕神圣之所。

Interior space: we transform the Yi traditional “入”shape roof into different function space. Classroom and office use skylight to get enough daylight, and more solar energy in winter time to reduce energy consumption. All living space is small partitions alongside, leaving the central public space around the fireplace. Fireplace is the family center of Yi traditional living culture, also the holy place where guests hope to close.

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