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许家山民宿聚落

封面照片
所有图片及文字来源:蔡炜

 

自发性地复活 -许家山民宿聚落

Spontaneous Revival- Xujiashan Inns

宁海许家山是著名的石头村,历史可追述到明洪武时期。当地人在自然聚落的时代,用脚下的一种叫铜板石的材料历经数百年逐渐建出一片石屋建筑群。许家山不仅保存着完整的石屋古村,同时还延续着传统的生活方式,比如牛耕田、制番薯粉、做番薯烧酒、捣年糕、做竹编等。文革期间的特殊社会文化使村民的公共聚集的需求增加,于是就出现了公社礼堂,集体制的小作坊。九十年代以后,这些空间基本闲置,于是我们便有了将其复活的任务。

Xujiashan in Ninghai is a famous stone village, whose history can be traced back to the Hongwu Period of Ming Dynasty. In the era of natural village, the local people gradually built stone houses with a kind of material called copperplate stone for hundreds of years. Xujiashan not only conserves the complete stone village, but also continues the traditional life style, such as cattle farming, making sweet potato flour, making sweet potato wine, pounding rice cake, making bamboo weaving, etc. During the cultural revolution, the special social culture increased the demand of villagers for public gathering, which led to the emergence of commune auditorium and small craft workshops. After the 1990s, these spaces were almost abandoned, so we had the task of reviving them.

初见许家山是2015年五月的一天中午,天色阴沉,空气透明。沿蜿蜒的山道来到山顶,基地就在山顶台地的边缘。有老农牵着耕牛在我身旁走过,另一头在悠闲地啃食路旁一把草编的扫帚。耕牛缓缓地随着老农走下梯田,这十五六层的梯田在脚下渐渐延展出一片盆地,引导视线向更远处的重峦叠嶂。过去远行的旅人必须耗时耗力,拔山涉水。但也有回报,当他在暮色苍茫中站在翻过的山顶上,看到河谷溪流旁散落着的可以投宿的客栈的灯光慢慢晕撒,心中一定格外祥和。虽然这初到时的遐想并没有在一开始给设计提供什么灵感,却在我心里一直存储了这个画面。

The first time I visited XuJiashan was at a heavy cloudy noon in someday of May 2015. The sky was gloomy and the air was clear. The site is located on the top of the mountain, along the edge of plateau. There is an old farmer walking by me with a cow, and the other is eating a woven broom by the road. The cow slowly followed the farmer down to the terraces. The 15or16-storey terraces gradually spread out a basin, guiding the sight to the mountains in the distance. In the past, travelers must spend time and effort to climb over mountains and Wade across rivers. But there is also a reward. When he stands on the top of the mountain in the dusk and sees the lights of the Inns scattered in the river valley, his heart must be peaceful. Although this daydream image didn’t provide any inspiration for the design at the beginning, it has been stored in my mind.

 

在混乱状态中建构非秩序的和谐。

Constructing Chaotic Harmony in the Disorder

在这里,城市建筑中常用的手法不起作用,只有随时变化的无限的角度带来的千变万化。如何在混乱状态中建构非秩序的和谐成为我们首先面对的问题。

Here, the commonly used design methodologies in urban environment do not work, only the infinite changes of view angle at any time brings the exciting contingency. How to construct the harmony in the disorders becomes the first problem we face.

茶厂和米长是集体小作坊,虽然常年废弃已破旧不堪,但其原生木结构的框架令人着迷。它们的前方围合出一个不规则的小庭院,在一角的百年古樟树的映衬下格外动人。庭院的东侧有一个开面缺口让出一条视线直指豁然开朗的梯田和群山。庭院的南侧在一道不封闭的围墙外就是村民生活广场,这使项目与村民的日常无缝地融合在一起。再往东是文革礼堂,也是本案中最大的单体既有建筑。原建筑为单层简易砖木混合结构,木构屋架瓦屋顶。为充分利用原建筑的空间将其改造成Loft客房,我们在保留原木屋架的前提下,整体抬升了墙体并加固了基础。客房的主朝向可以将近处层层叠叠的梯田和远处连绵起伏的群山尽收眼底。隔开进村的一条主路,南侧还有一栋石砌墙体的牛棚以及紧邻的公共厕所也是改造范围。

Although the tea factory and rice factory are small collective workshops, their original wood structure is fascinating although they have been abandoned for many years. There is a small irregular courtyard in front of them, a century old camphor tree in a corner. There is an opening on the east side of the courtyard, which gives a sudden view to the opened terraces and mountains. On the south side of the courtyard, outside an unclosed wall, is the villagers’ living square, which makes the project seamlessly integrated with the villagers’ daily life. Further east,there is the hall of the cultural revolution, which is also the largest single existing building in this project. The original building is a single story mixed Masonry structure with wooden roof truss and tile roof. In order to make full use of the space of the original building and transform it into loft guest room, we raised the wall and strengthened the foundation on the premise of retaining the log roof truss. The main orientation of the guest room offers a panoramic view of the adjacent terraces and the mountains in the distance. Crossing the main road into the village, there is a stone cowshed on the south side and the adjacent public toilet is also the scope of renovation.

改扩建部分的方案采取了强化原有场地特征,做少量的建筑介入的方法。希望能够使建筑间自发地达到一种非秩序的和谐,使人产生熟悉的新鲜感。构成这种和谐的,依然还是建筑的尺度、比例、材料、空间等问题。这里没有先进的技术,前卫的理论,新奇的形式。我们只是在做一个旧物改造的客栈,但同样可以给使用者带来新鲜的独特感受。

The extension part adopts the method of emphasizing the original site characteristics and making a light architectural intervention. It is hoped that the buildings can spontaneously achieve a kind of chaotic harmony and make people feel familiar and fresh. What constitutes this harmony is still with the scale, proportion, material and space of the building. There is no advanced technology, avant-garde theory, new forms. We are just doing renovation, but it can also bring new and unique feelings to users.

 

材料

Material

我们采用了比较多的原生材料,比如砖、混凝土、木材、耐候钢、抹灰砂浆涂料、青瓦和玻璃。材料的本性并不能表达由它组成的事物的品格,而相反是经由事物如何正确表达材料的本性而获得自身的品格。同时事物之间的作用的实质常常出乎意料,又难分彼此。设计的过程通常不是单向的,而是各种事物间无常的“化学”作用。我们设计的重点是将这些材料在保持和体现其本性的前提下组织在同一场域中。如果建筑的形式、材料、环境和构造之间建立起一种自主的平衡状态,而不是特别强烈地去控制某个部分的结果,那么我们也许就有机会偶尔适时地将设计带出过分理性的大脑。

We use a lot of raw materials, such as brick, concrete, wood, weathering steel, plastering mortar coating, clay tile and glass. The nature of material can not express the character of the things composed of it. On the contrary, it can obtain its own character through how to correctly express the nature of material. At the same time, the essence of the role between things is often unexpected and difficult to distinguish each other. The process of design is usually not one-way directed, but the impermanent “chemical” interaction between various things. The focus of our design is to organize these materials in the same place while maintaining and reflecting their nature. If an autonomous balance is established between the form, material, environment and construction of the building, rather than controlling the results of a certain part, we may have the opportunity to bring the design out of the over rational brain occasionally and timely.

 

形式

Form

新建的客房建筑采用了圆角体块平面组合的形式,但看上去与既有建筑的形式没有逻辑上的延续性。其原因有二,首先是这一部分的客房,原来业主希望做成帐篷酒店的形式,在乡村田野间散落,也是近年来的一种时髦。因此最初的建筑形式是土建的客房,加上张拉膜的顶棚装饰。但后来限于造价工期等原因,这个帐篷就取消了,于是只剩下了土建的体块。其次,这个决定是在土建完成后做出的。然而,这既是在过程中碰到的尴尬,又提供了一次重生的机会。帐篷,这个时髦的元素被取消,在我看来其实是提升了这个项目的审美耐久性。最近的一次现场造访似乎发现与多年前初临时脑海中出现的那个远行旅人在暮色中借宿的意向颇有几分契合。

The architectural form of new guest room uses the massing combination of rounded block, but it seems that it has no logical coherence with the existing building form. There are two reasons for this. First of all, the owner had hoped to make this part of the guest rooms the tent hotels, scattered in the countryside and fields, which is also a fashion in recent years. Therefore, the original architectural form is the guest room buildings of masonry structure, plus the roof decoration of tensioned fabric. However, due to the budget and schedule limitation, the tent was cancelled, leaving only the building blocks. Secondly, the decision was made after the completion of civil works. However, this is not only the embarrassment encountered in the process, but also provides a chance for rebirth. Tent, this fashionable element was cancelled, in my point of view, actually enhanced the aesthetic durability of the project. In a recent site visit, I found there is something similar to the image of that traveler’s stay in the twilight in my mind of the first visit of this place years ago.

2021.07.02
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