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李道德郑钰 牛背山志愿者之家
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所有图片及文字来源:http://www.gooood.hk/cattle-back-mountain-house.htm

 

这个项目是受东方卫视邀约的一次公益设计,为一群年轻的志愿者们在大山里盖一座房子,地点在四川省甘孜藏族自治州泸定县蒲麦地村。缘起于成都的资深义工大雁和他的一群90后小伙伴们在牛背山的一次旅行。被誉为中国最美观云海之地的牛背山,有很多驴友徒步登山,但是由于还没有被开发,基础设施极为落后,存在很多隐患,救援又无法及时达到。蒲麦地村,是离牛背山顶最近的一个有人居住的小村落,村子基本呈现出中国西南地区传统的乡村面貌,坡屋顶、小青瓦,民风淳朴。正如中国大部分的偏远村庄一样,成年的劳动力大都在城市打工,村里更多的是留守儿童和空巢老人,很多村舍也是年久失修。大雁他们希望在这里建造一个给年轻人提供公益实践的基地,来帮助遇险的驴友的同时,也可以为村里的老人、儿童提供服务和帮助。为了保证公益实践的开支,他们也需要这个房子有一定的青年旅社的功能。

Invited by DragonTV, the Cattle back mountain volunteer house is a social welfare project dedicating to building a house for young volunteers in the mountain of Pumaidi Village, Luding County, Sichuan Province. Known as the best viewing platform for clouds, Niubeishan, meets a large number of travelers and explorers every year, yet, due to the short of resource and development, public infrastructure and social support is still rather lagged behind. Pumaidi Village, the closest village from Niubeishan that inhabits villagers, presents itself as a typical village in Southwest China, with pitched roof, green tile, and harmonious living environment. Like most of the villages in suburban area in China,  the majority of the population is composed of the elderly and children, while the young and strong are out serving in the big cities trying to make a living for home. And thus, most of the houses in the village have been standing for long and maintenance is in desperate need. Considering all these, Dayan, an experienced volunteer, decided to build a social project base here,  not only to provide help for those travelers in need, but also the elderly and children in the village. The house will serve as a Youth Hostel at the same time so as to keep the financial balance of the social project.

改造前的房子是一个传统的破旧民居,门前一个被当地叫做“坝子”的平台,木结构坡屋顶,但瓦已坏,平台上的首层空间被厚重的墙体分割成几个昏暗的小房间,屋顶阁楼已破旧不堪,没有厕所厨房,在坝子的南侧有一个后期农民自己加建的方正的砖房,与环境极不协调且不抗震。

Upon renovation, it is an old traditional folk house, with wood pitched roof and broken tiles, facing with a platform (locally named as ‘Bazi’) in front, that is fragmented and shaded as couple dark rooms by couple thick walls.  The loft on the rooftop is old and shabby, with no kitchen or bathroom inside. On the south of the platform (Bazi), there is a squared brick house farmers made themselves, that’s neither coordinate to the surrounding nor resistant to earthquake.

我们的改造策略是在完善基本使用功能的前提下,让这个建筑更具有开放性与公共性,可为更多的人群服务,从建筑空间与结构上,创新的同时,又具有中国传统建筑的记忆与灵魂,使其与村落、与环境相协调,融为一体。

Our design strategy is, while improving the basic programs and functions, to make the architecture more open and public, capable of serving more people, and blend in the new building equipped with architectural and structural innovation with
the surrounding environment and its traditional culture.

于是在一层我们保留并加固了内部的木结构,拆除了面向坝子的厚重墙体,以及内部隔墙,使一层完全开放,作为最重要的公共空间,可作为读书阅览、酒吧、会议等多种功能。重新设计的钢网架玻璃门,可以存储木柴,在完全打开的时候,将室内外融为一体。

We kept and strengthened the internal wood structure, got rid of the thick walls facing with the Bazi and its partitions to open up the first floor and serve as an important public space where people can read, meet and grab a drink. The steel net framed glass wall can be used to store firewood, and when it open completely, it merges the interior and exterior into one.

坝子北侧的破旧猪圈被拆除,保留了木结构和坡屋顶,加建了围墙以及下水排污设施,改造为厨房和淋浴间以及卫生间,这也是整个村子唯一的一处有抽水马桶的卫生设施。

The old sty on the north of the Bazi is removed, while the wood structure and the roof are kept to transform into a kitchen and a bathroom, with the only proper flush toilet in the whole village installed.

我们拆除了坝子南侧后建的砖房,还原了坝子原本的空间,并加建了一个木结构的构筑物,顶部覆瓦,可遮风避雨,增大了坝子使用率的同时,也形成了一个独特的观景平台。

We also removed the brick house on the south of the Bazi, and replaced it with a pavilion with wood structure  and tiles on top that shelters people from wind and rain. With all the above, we maximize the use of the Bazi, and also form a unique viewing platform.

在这个项目中,我们尽可能的使用当地村民作为主要的劳动力,用最常见、最基本的建筑材料和传统的搭建方式,比如当地石块的砌墙方式、坡屋顶与小青瓦的延续。当然在加建的构筑部分我们采用了数字化的设计方法与生成逻辑。

In the project, we used the most basic architecture materials and the most common building technique (stone walls, pitched roofs and green tiles that consists with the original language), and we try our utmost to make full use of the local human resource. Modern digital logic and design strategies are also implemented in the process.

面对主屋你可以看到从左至右,逐渐是由传统转变到了现代,甚至是对未来的探索。一个和背后大山、云海相呼应的有机形态的屋顶呈现了出来。

Looking at the main facade, from left to right, you will be able to see an organic roof shape merging with the mountain and clouds at its back, and the perfect transition from traditional art to modern art, or even the exploration of the future.

内部看似是传统的木结构,但又是一种数字化的全新表现。这里所采用的材料也是由四川本地盛产的慈竹所提炼而成的新型竹基纤维复合材料,具有高强度,耐潮湿,阻燃等特性,可循环再生,低碳环保。但对这种异形结构的加工,供应商也是首次尝试,结合建筑师的模型、图纸在施工现场放样加工,工厂预制与现场手工相结合。

As for the internal space, it’s a brand new expression of wood structure in digital times. Another part worth mentioning, the wood material used in the project is produced locally in Sichuan, a new type of bamboo-based fiber composite with high resistance to strength, moisture and fire that’s also recyclable and environmentally friendly.  Being the first time for the producers to implement the material to irregular shaped architecture like this one, the producers took high participation in the process involving sampling on site, custom pre-made in the factory and manual adjustment on site.

主持建筑师李道德在解释这部分特殊的设计时,说到:
“这个起伏的屋顶与背后的大山以及远方的云海之间存在着形式上的某种关联,但我们更希望营造的是内心与情感上的联系,当驴友或者志愿者,甚至是村民们,徒步多时至此,远远可能看到村口有这么一个小小的独特而又熟悉的建筑泛着微微的暖光,就像是航船在大海航行中看到了灯塔,是给人们的一个召唤与鼓励,有着一种强烈的归属感。”

In talking about the special design of this part, principal architect Daode Li stated:
The weaving roof and the mountain, along with the clouds at its back are connected in a way aesthetically, but yet, we hope this connection can extend to a more spiritual level. When traveler, volunteers, or even villagers approach from afar, looking at this unique and familiar building shimmering with warmth, they are then seized by the feeling of belongings, like a long drifting ship in the ocean spots a light tower that gives them immediate courage to move forward.

转摘自谷德:http://www.gooood.hk/cattle-back-mountain-house.htm

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