森林守望者-长白山河谷别墅群
30

缘起

Origin

 

        长白山脉是欧亚大陆东缘的最高山系,由多列断层山脉、盆地和谷地组成,因其主峰长白山和天池(一座巨型的休眠火山和火山口湖)闻名遐迩。亿万年以来,这个地区经历了沧海桑田的地壳变迁,在气候变化、火山喷发和冰川运动的雕塑之后,造就了今天的景象。壮观的火山地貌,典型的山地森林生态系统,种类繁多的野生动植物,分布广泛的矿泉、瀑布与河流,共同形成了这里神奇古朴的自然风光。  

        The Changbai Mountains is the tallest mountain range in eastern Eurasia, consisting of multiple fault mountains, basins and valleys. It is well-known far and near for Changbai Mountain, the major peak and the Heaven Lake (a huge dormant volcano and a crater lake). For the past millions of years, this area has had drastic crustal movements. Climate change, volcanic eruption and glacial movement made it what it is today. Magnificent volcanic landform, typical mountain forest eco system, various wild animals and plants, and widely distributed mineral spring, falls and rivers compose the magical and unsophisticated natural scenes here.

 

        众多河流发源于长白山脉,由天池流水汇聚而成的二道白河,就是中国七大水系之一—松花江的源头。项目所在地二道白河镇,地处长白山脚下,因二道白河穿过而得名,距长白山核心区35公里,素有“长白山第一镇”之称。这里既是进入长白山北坡的门户,现在也成为人类城市发展与自然交锋的前沿。从一个小村落向现代化城镇急剧发展的过程中,铲平再造的当代城市开发模式和钢筋混凝土建造技术齐头并进,对原有自然风貌形成碾压的态势。强硬扩张的城镇边界有如一道高墙,向外挤压着不断萎缩的自然生态,内部则迅速填充以石材广场和成片混凝土楼房。

        Numerous rivers originate from the Changbai Mountain Range. Erdaobai River flows out of the Heaven Lake and it is the upper reach of Songhua River, one of China’s seven major river systems. The project is located in Erdaobai River Town, a town at the foot of Changbai Mountain, named after the river flowing through. Known as “the first town in the Changbai Mountain Range”, it is 35km away from central Changbai region. It is not only the gateway to the northern slope of Changbai Mountain, but also the frontier where urban development confronts nature.In the rapid urbanization of a small village, the original scenery is burdened with the demolition-construction model of contemporary urban development as well as reinforced concrete construction technologies. The aggressive city frontier is like a high wall. It oppresses the nature outwards, and stuffs stone squares and vast concrete buildings inside.

 

         即便对于因旅游而快速发展的二道白河镇来说,优异的自然环境也是他们最大的优势与本钱。这里曾经森林密布,生态资源得天独厚,然而这些真的就不能与人类社会的发展共存?

      Erdaobai River Town is under rapid development due to tourism. However, their biggest advantage and attraction is the maintenance of the beautiful natural environment. Here used to be thick forests and unique eco-resources. Are they really incompatible with the development of human society?

 

      原地建筑希望通过这个项目的实践,探寻人类活动与自然之间共生共存的方法,以及城市与自然之间边界状态的不同可能性。

   Origin Architect seeks to explore the method to achieve symbiotic harmony between nature and human activities, and possibilities for border between nature and cities.

 

生长的风景

Growing landscape

 

        项目用地位于二道白河镇的南端,业主希望利用这块用地建设一片度假屋,用作东侧现有7层度假酒店楼的扩展。 场地自身就是城镇扩张边缘的一个典型样本,一条城市与自然对抗产生的清晰界线,从用地中生硬切过。界线一侧是原生态的森林河谷,二道白河从山林中蜿蜒而下;另一侧则是城市发展留下的巨大伤疤—一个关闭的民俗游乐园的废弃场地,自然环境遭到肆意破坏,荒芜一片,堆满建筑垃圾。

     The project is situated at the south of Erdaobai River Town. Proprietors hope to build holiday cottages here as a westward extension to the seven-floor hotel nearby. The site itself is revealing typical condition of borderline in urban expansion, that a clear line divides the site into two halves, reflecting the confrontation between nature and cities. One side is a virgin forest river valley. Erdaobai River winds its way through the forest. On the other side, there is a huge scar from urban development—abandoned folk amusement park that has already shut down. There, nature met reckless destruction. The land lies desolate, piled with construction waste.

   

        基于对大自然的尊重与敬畏之心,以及对二道白河镇上主流建设方式的逆反,原地建筑没有急于推动建设,而是以退为进确立了一个反向的目标-首先让森林生态恢复被城市发展破坏之前的完整状态,让城市建设用地回归自然森林属性。

      In awe of nature, after reflecting on the common practice in urban construction in Erdaobai River Town, instead of jumping to construction, Origin Architect proposed a reverse goal at first: to restore the forest eco system as it was destructed by urban development, i.e. to restore an urban construction land to natural forest.

 

        设计团队深入现场仔细勘测调研,查寻整个河谷森林生态体系的脉络,甄别每处地形地貌的状态与成因,水文地质构造,河滩、山坡不同的生物植被群落。对处于原始状态的河谷、树林、地形地貌予以全面保护。对场地内每棵原生树木、露出地表的块石,逐一进行测量标记。对被民俗园建设破坏的部分进行生态修复,清除建筑垃圾,因循脉络恢复地形和雨水通路、疏通填塞的自然河沟、孕育植被种群,促进整个场地的生态再次发育,使被割裂出来的荒地回到大自然的怀抱,并引导广袤的原始河谷森林突破城市造就的壁垒,向城市内部方向延伸生长。

      The design team probed into the site and did meticulous survey and investigation on the entire river valley forest eco system, differentiate each geological landform by form and cause, explore hydrogeologic regimes and different vegetation and colonies on flood lands and hillsides. We preserved primeval river valleys, forests and geological landforms. We also mapped and measured each primeval tree and exposed stone respectively. Moreover, we proceeded ecological restoration to areas where construction of the amusement park had damaged. We removed construction waste, restored landforms and rainwater channels according to the vein, dredged choked rivers and cultivated vegetation to encourage ecological redevelopment of this area, so that the separated waste land could be embraced by nature again, and the vast primeval river valley forest could break down the barriers caused by urban development and extend citywards.

在风景中生长

Grow in the landscape

 

       自然生态的生长,也让建筑与风景的关系从对望转变为沉浸与拥抱。建筑如同在自然起伏的坡地上轻轻放置一组吸纳光与风景的采集器。除以少量局部轻触土地,每个建筑体量都轻盈漂浮于地面或河流之上,将对大地的惊扰减到最少。没有预设的固定形状,它们只是小心翼翼宛转避开每棵原生的树木,沿着树林的间隙,各自向着阳光、风景自由生长。客厅朝向山峦高扬,餐厅突挑于林间,卧室俯瞰溪流,伸出的每个空间角落都是去独自感受自然的一处寂静窗口。内部无阻隔的流动空间设计,如同三维连通管道,把寻常居住活动,变成了不同方向景观自然之间的游走穿行,顾盼之时,森林、河流、山脉,又或天空中洒下的阳光,交错眼前,不知不觉间光移景异,四季流转。

      Restoration of natural ecology changed the relationship between architecture and landscape: they embrace instead of gazing at each other. Buildings are like collectors on the slopes, taking in light and view. Despite partial contact with the land, each building softly floats above the surface of earth or rivers, minimizing their interference with the land. The buildings do not have predetermined shapes. They just carefully avoid every primeval tree and grow freely towards the sun and landscapes. Living rooms face the mountains; dining rooms stand out in forests; bedrooms overlook the creeks. Every stick-out window is a tranquil corner for man to feel nature by himself. Unobstructed interior design forms a channel that turns everyday life into shuttling between landscapes in different directions. When you look around, you can see the forest, river, mountain and sunshine interweaving in front of you. Landscapes change and seasons pass before you realize them.

 

       由于各处原生环境的随机变化和建筑的因循生长,造就了丰富的差异性,每个建筑各不相同,与环境的相处方式更是独一无二。譬如其中一栋的客厅悬浮溪流之上,俯瞰溪水从玻璃地板下潺潺流过,顺垂直旋梯拾级而下即可触摸溪水。而另一栋的入口,则需从一株高耸壮硕的老青杨和茂密桦树林之间的狭窄小道穿过才能到达。建筑群与环境在相互渗透的连续整体空间关系中,不断变换,互为风景。

      Different original environments make the buildings that follow the threads of which to be formed in great diversity. Buildings are different from each other, and the ways they get along with nature are unique. For instance, one of the buildings has a living room suspending above a creek. One can overlook the creek gurgling beneath the glass floor, or touch the water if go down the spiral staircase. As for another building, its entry has to be accessed through a lane between a tall old poplar and a group of birches. Buildings and the environment blend with each other and establish a continuous space sequence. With these two elements shifting, a new landscape is constructed.

 

       这本是一个有一定强度和密度的城镇开发项目,并非孤立于广袤自然的单栋房屋。交错生长的形态策略让建筑与自然相互拥抱,又相互掩映,人与人之间相互呼应却不相互干扰。正所谓“隐于野而不寂寞,隐于市而不喧嚣”。

       It is intended to be an urban development project with certain density and intensity, not an isolated house in vast nature by itself. Nature and architecture embrace and conceal each other, thanks to the forming strategy of interweaving and growing. People are connected yet they won’t bother each other. As the saying goes, “There’s no loneliness when you sequester yourself in the nature. There’s no chaos when you sequester yourself in the crowd.”

 

        “建筑并不伤害自然,建筑和自然相互拥抱。”

        “Architecture does not damage nature. Instead, they embrace each other.”

 

        “建筑并不把人和自然隔离,建筑是通往自然的窗口。”

        “Architecture does not isolate man from nature; it is the window leading to nature.”

 

原生与共生

Protogenesis and symbiosis

 

       为了实现建筑与环境共生的目标,原地建筑采用了将当代技术、材料优势与当地技术、原生材料有机结合的共生建构方法。以高强度的钢结构作为整体骨骼框架,从而用最少量扎根土地的支柱实现建筑体量的悬浮。外层以当地原生的火山块石垒砌砌体,作为抵御严酷气候的稳定围护,并增强了整体结构的防火性能。内层以松木包裹空间,在严寒的冬季给人以温暖柔和的呵护。中间层设置压型钢板和发泡保温填充层,增强防水保温,并把内外各层牢固结合在一起。在建筑形体生长的每一个端部,这种三明治式夹心复合墙体构造被切断暴露出来,揭示了单纯外部形象之内丰富的层次。

      In order to achieve the goal of symbiosis between architecture and the environment, Origin Architect employs a symbiotic construction method that combines modern technology and material advantage with local technology and primitive materials, and uses high-strength steel structure for the general frame, thus build a suspended structure relying on minimum pillars. The outer structure is made of local vesuvianite blocks in order to keep the cold out and enhance fireproof capacity of the entire structure. The inner layer is built up with pinewood, giving tender care to people in the harsh winter. As for the midst, we set up profiled steel sheet and a foaming thermal insulation filler layer to enhance waterproof and thermal insulation properties and firmly connect the outer and inner layers. Sections of this sandwich-like composition are exposed at every end of the building, showing the sophisticated layers against its simple exterior.

 

        钢材是可回收使用的环保材料,结构构件全部在工厂预制生产,把现场工作对自然的破坏减到最少。在树林间隙的各处空地里打入散布的点状钢柱基础,在场地中心设置集中的施工塔吊,后续其他工作都在空中进行。工人们踩着架空的钢梁上在树叶间来回穿梭、安装作业,看着钢结构框架与树林交织在一起一点点生长起来,都体会到与过去经验完全不同的感受。

       The steel products are recyclable and environmental friendly. All component parts have been pre-processed at factories, so as to minimize the harm to nature from onsite construction work. Multiple spots of steel cylinder pile foundation were piled into vacant places among the trees, and crane towers concentrated in the center of the site. All the follow-up works were done in the air. Workers stepped on suspending steel beams, shuttled among leaves and operated. Watching the steel structure gradually develop and interweave with the trees, they all felt these were completely different from their previous experiences.

   

          原生火山块石被当地人称为“红土石”,经亿万年地质作用形成,因性质独特,长期以来只被磨碎用作廉价混凝土的替代掺料,原地建筑采用不经加工的原始石块块料直接垒砌,希望这些建筑吸收这片广阔土地天然的质朴与粗砺,经历风霜之后慢慢融入超越时间的地质形态中去。 

     Native vesuvianite blocks were called “red earth blocks” by the local people. They were formed by geological effects through millions of years. It has long been crushed and then used as substitute additive for cheap concrete because of its unique property. Origin Architect uses unprocessed blocks for wall-laying, as to simulate the modesty and toughness of the vast earth, and blend in with the timeless geological forms in the remote future.

 

        内部环境景观设计都以修复场地原生森林生态为核心,舍弃城镇社区景观所用的手段。完全本地群落的树种植被,任由野花野草烂漫生长、树叶飘落堆积,只在人车通行必需之处撒以石子。社区朝向森林河谷的方向,没有围栏围墙,人们可以走到森林中去,野生动植物也可以自由进入社区深处。这一带上游湍急河流的林地,据说是第三纪冰川期后残存下来的稀有鸟类-中华秋沙鸭的繁殖地之一,现在被人们称为“秋沙河谷”。在悬浮建筑之下的连续土地上,光、风、雨水自由穿过,植物蔓延生长,野生小动物自如穿行迁徙,秋沙鸭也可获得更多的安全遮蔽,成为它们繁衍的理想场所。

        All the landscape designs are focusing on restoring the original forest eco-system. We did not take the normal practices of urban landscapes design. Instead, we restore local vegetation, encourage wild flowers and grasses to grow freely, allow fallen leaves to pile, and only lay stones on paths for man and vehicles. There is no fence or wall between the community and the forest or the river valley. People can walk into the forest, so can wildlife enter deep into the community. It is said that the stretch of forest around the upper reaches of the rapid river is a breeding ground for Chinese mergansers, a rare species survived the Tertiary Period ice age. Nowadays it is known as the Merganser river valley. Spaces under the buildings are free for passing through of light, wind and rainwater. Plants grow luxuriantly. Small wild animals move and migrate freely. Chinese mergansers also have an ideal place for reproduction as they have more shelter.

 

        这里是城镇,也是森林。是属于人类的社区,更是属于野生植物、小动物、秋沙鸭的乐园。希望这里不再有对抗和壁垒,让没有边界的城市,和无边无际的自然,共同繁荣生长。

      This is a town, but also an expanse of forest. It is a community of man, but also a paradise for wild plants, small animals and Chinese mergansers. We hope that here will be no more confrontation or barrier, and that borderless cities and boundless nature can grow together and share prosperity.

 

        这个项目能够逐步实现,得益于多方支持与合作。业主秉承生态开发的理念,对于设计给予支持,承担起一些通常项目不需要的隐性工作。城市规划部门也很关注,还就当地情况变迁等方面给予了具体指导。

       Thanks to support and cooperation from multiple parties, this project has been gradually implemented. Proprietors adhere to the idea of eco development, support the design and undertake a number of invisible works that ordinary projects do not include. Concerned with this project, the urban planning department also offers specific guidance on local circumstances.


李 冀
原地建筑 创始人/主持建筑师
中国一级注册建筑师
中国建筑学会会员
1994年毕业于清华大学建筑学院

作者/author
李冀
项目主持人/pd
李冀
主设计师/chief designer
李冀
设计总监/design director
张浩
叶强
建筑师/architect
张浩
刘洪燕
王树毓
王静
罗蕲
白迪
石岩
室内设计师/interior designer
廉辉
景观设计
叶强
陈思聪
梁小虎
赵雪
梅可嘉
白迪
主建筑设计/chief designer
原地建筑Origin Architect
http://www.origin-architect.com/
数据/data
功能/program: 住宅建筑 绿色建筑 居住区规划 别墅 公寓 体检中心 节能建筑 山地建筑 民居
材料/material: 石材 玻璃 砌块 金属 low-e玻璃
高度分类/height cat.: 低层建筑
设计时间/design time: 2014-00-00
完成时间/finished time: 2017-00-00
是否公共/is public: 未知
相关外部链接
Post数字编号:188334