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数据分析应用:纽约皇后区地铁站选址以及对周边的影响
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纽约皇后区将要在既有线路上新修一系列地铁站。团队通过已有的城市数据,(1)确定地铁站位置,(2)评估和分析在地铁站建成后,周边区域应当怎样被开发。
来源:伍文丹

感谢来自哥伦比亚大学MSAAD项目的杨隽超同学供稿。

该项目为学生团队项目,团队成员:杨隽超,龚昀,Ubaldo Escalante,宋然

指导老师: Lucien Wilson

 

项目背景丨Project Background

纽约皇后区将要在既有线路上新修一系列地铁站。团队通过已有的城市数据,(1)确定地铁站位置,(2)评估和分析在地铁站建成后,周边区域应当怎样被开发。

The City of New York was planning a series of subway station based on an existing railroad located in Queens. By analyzing existing data, we are trying to determine the location of each train station and provide suggestions for further urban development when the stations were open.

 

主要数据来源丨Source of Data

城市数据(PLUTO Data):https://www1.nyc.gov/site/planning/data-maps/open-data/dwn-pluto-mappluto.page

安全系数(Q-score):http://streetscore.media.mit.edu/data.html

分析过程概要丨Process Summary

1.布鲁克林研究
由于布鲁克林区和皇后区在城市发展上的相似性,我们通过数据将布鲁克林区的地铁站分类,同时,通过Q-score判定在不同分类下,最好的地铁站。这样,我们可以用最好的地铁站的数据,指导同类型皇后区地铁站的开发。

2.皇后区火车站地点筛选与匹配

通过权衡建设成本和对周边居民的影响,我们在分析既有数据的前提下,人为筛选出地铁站的地点。然后我们对皇后区进行与布鲁克林相同的分类,并与布鲁克林同类的最好地体站相匹配。

3.开发策略迭代与评估

通过类型中布鲁克林地铁站的数据所限定的范围,迭代出皇后区地铁站周边的不同种开发策略。迭代完毕后,通过迭代结果对于场地周边的影响,评估出最适合该地区的开发方案。

1.Brooklyn Study

Because of the similarity of Brooklyn and Queens, we categorize different stations in Brooklyn by its data and determine the best stations of different categories using Q-score. So that we could use the best stations as guidelines for the relative development in Queens.

2.Queens Station Location Filtering and Matching

By weighing the construction cost and potential impact to the adjacent residents, we analyze existing data and manually select locations for the subway station construction. We apply the same categorization standard to the stations in Queens and using the best station of the same category in Brooklyn as guidelines for future development.

3.Development Suggestion Iteration and Evaluation

After iterating different proposal for development, we evaluate different results by its potential impact of the area and pick the best plan for its development.

 

分析过程丨Process

1.布鲁克林区地铁站分析

调研过程中,我们发现布鲁克林区和皇后区的相似性。由于其已然完备的轨道交通系统,布鲁克林可以看做是皇后区在发展轨道交通后的样子。因此,我们通过分析并评估布鲁克林区地铁站周边的现有状况,就可以了通过这项数据指导皇后区类似地段的城市开发。

因此,通过grasshopper 提取在pluto data中,布鲁克林区(Brooklyn)地铁站0.5英里内所有地块和0.25英里内所有地块的如下数据:安全系数、土地用途比例、平均容积率、不同土地用途的平均容积率、人口数量(通过住房总面积推算)、土地平均价值、土地总价值。

1. Brooklyn Study

In our research process, we find the similarity between Brooklyn and Queens. With an already fully developed subway system, Brooklyn could be seen as a future version of Queens. Consequently, if we study the existing situation of the subway station in Brooklyn, and find ways to evaluate it, we will be able to use the data we selected as a guideline for the development of the similar subway stations in Queens.

In regard, by using Grasshopper, we extract from PLUTO database the following data in the radius of 0.5 miles and 0.25 miles of each station: Q-score, Land Use, Average FAR (For whole radius and different land use), Population Density (Determined by residential area), Land Price(Average and Total).

Pluto Data中提取的数据示意
©杨隽超

 

通过如下步骤,我们根据得到的布鲁克林地铁站周边数据对地铁站区块进行分类:

(1)通过0.5英里内所有地块和0.25英里内安全系数的比值,筛掉越靠近地铁站越安全的区域(0.25英里内的安全系数平均值与0.5英里内的安全系数平均值比值过高)

(2)在剩余的地铁站中,分别筛选出居住、商业、工厂、公共地块比例最高+平均安全系数最高的前二十个样本

(3)获得上述地块top20的样本后,分析这些地块的人口密度与土地价值,并得出周边功能为居住、商业、工业、公共的地铁站中:

人口密度大,地价高,安全系数最高的样本

人口密度大,地价低,安全系数最高的样本

人口密度小,地价高,安全系数最高的样本

人口密度小,地价低,安全系数最高的样本

从这一步的分析中,我们从布鲁克林区(Brooklyn)的数据中得到了,在已有的十四种类型的地铁站中,安全系数最高(最安全)的样本,接下来我们对皇后区(Queens)的地块进行分析。

With the following steps, we analyze the data to categorize different station and determine the best station of different category:

(1)By comparing the average Q-score of 0.5 miles and 0.25 miles radius of the same station, we eliminate stations that is much safer when you get close to the station.

(2)In the rest of the sample, we divide them by land use(Which sample have the most residential, commercial, industrial, and public building block), and filter the best 20 Q-score of the four categories.

(3)After filtering the best 20 Q-score, we subdivide each group into four smaller group:

a.Samples with high population density, high land price, high q-score

b.Samples with low population density, high land price, high q-score

c.Samples with high population density, low land price, high q-score

d.Samples with low population density, low land price, high q-score

布鲁克林区地铁站安全系数最高的部分样本示意
©杨隽超

 

2.皇后区既定路线站点筛选与匹配

通过以下步骤,我们试图人为筛选出地铁站的地点以便后续研究:

(1)以地铁线路周边0.5英里为地铁的服务范围

(2)通过pluto data 筛选出铁路服务区域附近的空地(减少拆迁成本)

(3)筛选出铁路服务区域附近属于政府财产的地块(减少购置地块成本)

(4)求出铁路服务区域沿途的人口密度,周边交通站点状况(考虑地铁站服务的辐射范围)

(5)综合上述数据,结合相邻地铁站直线距离不超过0.5英里的原则(部分大空地除外)与场地实际状况,人工选择地铁站位置,如下图所示。

 

2.Queens Station Location Filtering and Matching

With the following steps, we are trying to manually filter the physical location of the train station for further analysis.

(1)    Set 0.5 miles as the subway’s service radius

(2)    Filtering vacant land in the service radius using PLUTO data (Deduct demolition cost)

(3)    Filtering Government Properties in the service radius (Deduct land purchasing cost)

(4)    Calculate population density, analyze transportation convenience in the service radius (Consider the actual service radius of the subway station)

(5)    According to previous research, based on the principle that each subway station is within 0.5-mile reach (exclude subway station in the middle of vacant land), manually select the physical location of each subway station, Demonstrated below.

 

地铁站区域范围以及选点
©杨隽超

 

针对皇后区地铁站周边的状况,做与布鲁克林区(Brooklyn)同类的分析。根据其的不同地块的分类与布鲁克林同类型地块的分类配对(住宅地块最多,商业地块最多,公共地块最多,工业地块最多)。

将匹配的布鲁克林样本中商业地块与住宅地块之比,设置成为相应皇后区地铁站的开发参考指标。

 

We apply the same categorization standard to the stations in Queens and match it with the best station of the same category in Brooklyn.

Then we are using the commercial/residential building block ratio in Brooklyn as the development guideline in the related area in Queens.

 

 

匹配结果部分如上图所示
©杨隽超

 

3.站点附近地块详细分析与开发评估

这一步是以通过增加税收偿还地铁建设费用为目的,得出该区域中不同功能地块需要增加的面积。

在此之后,通过调整房屋建成年代范围(优先拆非地标老房子),建设量远小于法规值的地块(容积率与法律规定容积率之比),得出不同的需要改动的地块的位置的组合,再通过离铁路距离,离地铁站距离,分配该地块居住建筑需要增加的总面积,从而计算出不同位置组合的重建楼层数。

通过迭代不同的组合,共算出54种开发计划。

 

3.Development Suggestion Iteration and Evaluation

By setting paying the subway station construction fee with extra tax income which the area development could bring as a goal, we calculate the total increased area for different types of building blocks.

After that, we try to iterate different combinations of building blocks that are going to be modified by tweaking the year of built and the underbuilt ratio. (Existing FAR/Allowed maximum ratio). Then we are using subway station attraction and railroad attraction to distribute the total increased area to those different combinations, in order to obtain  increased numbers of floors of each combination.

After the iterating every possible combination, we have 54 development plans for evaluation.

居民区数据
©杨隽超
居民区数据
©杨隽超

 

商业区数据
©杨隽超
商业区数据
©杨隽超

 

通过改动地块与地铁站距离,改动地块与公园的距离,潜在施工对周边居民区影响,居民楼高度变化,所需重新开发的地块数量,对上一步得出的54种结果进行再次评估,得出该地块建成地铁站后最适宜的发展方案。

By calculating the distance from modified building block to subway, to park, potential influence of the construction on modified building block, the expected height of the modified building block, and the number of the modified building block, we reevaluate the 54 development plans, and conclude the best one according to the weight we give to the different criteria.

 

result

根据评估指标的重要程度,对已有评估指标分配不同的权重。根据权重计算出每一个迭代结果的分数。

分数最高的五个开发结果
©杨隽超

 

 

 

2018.09.13
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